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Learn - Tuesday 30, 2020
As a Vitamin Manufacturer, share with you. Vitamin B12, also known as
cobalamin, is the only vitamin containing metal elements. Vitamin B12 in nature
is synthesized by microorganisms, and higher animals and plants cannot produce
vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is the only vitamin that needs the help of an
intestinal secretion (endogenous factor) to be absorbed. Some people, due to
gastrointestinal abnormalities, lack this endogenous factor, and even suffer
from pernicious anemia even if there are sufficient sources in the diet. There
is basically no vitamin B12 in plant foods. It stays in the intestine for a long
time and takes about three hours (most water-soluble vitamins only take a few
seconds) to be absorbed. The main physiological function of vitamin B12 is to
participate in the production of bone marrow erythrocytes, prevent pernicious
anemia, and prevent the destruction of brain nerves. Vitamin B12 is the latest
B-vitamin to date. Vitamin B12 is a polycyclic compound containing trivalent
cobalt. The 4 reduced pyrrole rings are connected together to form a corrin
macrocycle (similar to porphyrin), which is the core of vitamin B12 molecule.
Therefore, compounds containing this ring are called corrinoids.
Methylcobalamin is mainly found in meat. Soybeans and some herbs in plants also contain B12. Intestinal bacteria can be synthesized, so it is not lacking in general. However, B12 is a vitamin that is easily lacking in people with digestive tract diseases, and it is also indispensable for red blood cell production. Important elements, if severely lacking, will lead to pernicious anemia!
Vitamin B12 in food combines with protein and enters the human digestive tract. Under the action of stomach acid, pepsin and trypsin, vitamin B12 is released and binds to an intraglycoprotein factor (IF) secreted by gastric mucosal cells. Vitamin B12-IF complex is absorbed in the ileum. The storage capacity of vitamin B12 is very small, about 2~3mg in the liver. It is mainly excreted in urine and partly excreted in bile.
There are two main types: ① As a co-factor for methyltransferase, it is involved in the synthesis of methionine, thymine and the like, such as the conversion of methyltetrahydrofolate to tetrahydrofolic acid and the transfer of methyl groups to methyl receptors, so that The receptor becomes a methyl derivative. Therefore, vitamin B12 can promote the biosynthesis of protein, and affect the growth and development of infants and young children when lacking. ②Protect the transfer and storage of folic acid in cells. When vitamin B12 is deficient, the folate content of human red blood cells is low, and the folate stored in the liver is reduced. This may be related to vitamin B12 deficiency, which causes difficulty in the transfer of methyl groups from homocysteine to methionine. The methyl groups accumulate in the cells and damage The storage of tetrahydrofolate in cells is due to the strong tendency of tetrahydrofolate combined with methyl to form methyltetrahydrofolate, which synthesizes polyglutamic acid.
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