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What are the Structure and Physical And Chemical Properties of Vitamin A?

Learn - Friday 26, 2021

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Structure and physical and chemical properties

Vitamin A refers to all compounds with the biological activity of retinol. There are two main types of substances that can provide retinol biological activity. One refers to retinol, its metabolites, and synthetic analogs with similar structures. This category is also called retinoids (retiniods), also called preformed vitamin A. The main dietary source is animal origin. Retinol and retinoyl esters contained in food. Another type of substance is provitamin A carotenoids, which refer to carotenoids derived from plant foods that can be converted into retinol in the body. They are the precursors of dietary retinol, mainly including β-carotene , Α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin.

Vitamin A Palmitate Oil

Vitamin A Palmitate Oil

Vitamin A is a group of 20-carbon structure with a β-ionone ring, a side chain composed of four isoprenoid units connected head to tail, and a hydroxyl group at the carbon-15 position, or A molecular collection of aldehyde groups, carboxylic acid groups, or ester groups. Carotenoids are polyisoprene compounds or terpenoids. More than 600 forms of carotenoids have been found in nature, of which only some have provitamin A nutritional activity, but only β-carrots have dietary vitamin A significance. There are three kinds of vitamins, α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin. All-trans isomers are the most common and stable form of each type of carotene, but there are also many cis-isomers. Carotenoids usually contain 40 carbon atoms, have a wide range of conjugated double bond systems, and have one or two cyclic structures at the ends of their conjugated carbon chains. An exception is lycopene, which has no ring structure and no vitamin A activity.

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, which can be dissolved in most organic solvents to varying degrees, but is insoluble in water. Vitamin A and its derivatives are easily oxidized and isomerized, especially when exposed to light, oxygen, active metals, and high temperature environments, which can accelerate this oxidative destruction. However, the general cooking process will not cause too much damage to the vitamin A in the food. Under ideal conditions, such as low-temperature freezing, serum, tissue or crystalline retinoids can maintain long-term stability. Under anaerobic conditions, retinal is relatively stable to alkali, but unstable in acid, and dehydrogenation or double bond rearrangement can occur. The vitamin A and carotene contained in the fat will be severely damaged during the rancidity process.

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